A recent study found that the people of the extinct Indus Valley Civilization were largely carnivores. They ate beef, buffalo, goat, and goat meat.
The study is based on pottery found in excavations in the Indus Valley region, which is used to estimate the prevalence of food and drink there.
A Surya Narayan, a Ph.D. in archeology from Cambridge University, is now pursuing a postdoctoral fellowship in France. He has researched ways of eating and drinking in the era of Indus Valley Civilization. His research is published in the journal Archaeological Science. Although much research has been done on the lifestyle of the people of the Indus Valley, Surya Narain’s research focuses primarily on crops grown in the region.
Overall, the study focuses on the livestock and utensils used by the people along with the crops grown there. A scientific examination of the utensils used by them reveals what the people of ancient India ate and drank in them.
Archaeologists around the world are conducting similar studies. Similar research has been done on pottery found at the site of the Indus Valley Civilization.
Crops of Indus Valley Civilization
Barley, wheat, rice as well as grapes, cucumbers, eggplants, turmeric, mustard, jute, cotton, and sesame were grown during the Indus Valley Civilization Among the animals, cows and buffaloes are their most important cattle. Cows and buffaloes make up 50 to 60 percent of animal bone remain in the area, while goats make up about 10 percent. This suggests that beef and mutton may have been the favorite meat of the people there.
The remains also show that cow’s milk and oxen were raised for farming.
Although pig bones have been found in the excavations, it is not yet clear what they will be used for. Remains of some deer and birds have also been found.
Rakhi Garhi, the site of excavations of Sindh civilization in the state of Haryana adjacent to the present Indian capital Delhi, has been selected for this research. Besides, pottery from Alamgirpur, Masoodpur, Lohari Raghu, and some other places have also been collected Samples were taken from these vessels and a scientific analysis revealed that the meat of cattle was cooked and eaten in them.
Research has shown that these dishes were used to cook dairy products, the meat of domestic animals, and vegetables.
There was no difference in this matter between the urban and rural areas of the Indus Valley. Pottery was used for other purposes besides these.
At the time, there were many ruminants in the area, but very little direct use of dairy products has been found in these vessels.
An earlier study in Gujarat found that many potteries contained only dairy products. The study was published in Scientific Reports. Surya Kumar, a Ph.D. in archeology and a postdoctoral fellow says that in the next phase of the research, they will try to find out what changes have taken place in their way of life due to cultural and climate change happened.
He says the remains of pottery will play an important role in his research He also said that by analyzing pottery found in archeological sites in South Asian cities, we will be able to understand the diversity of food and drink in South Asia in prehistoric times.
O Surya Narayan has included some information about the civilization of Sindh in his research. In prehistoric times, the Indus Valley Civilization was geographically spread over areas of modern Pakistan, northwestern India, southern India, and Afghanistan.
The Indus Valley Civilization was spread in the plains, hills, river valleys, deserts, and coastal areas. These included five major cities and several small settlements, and their flourishing period is said to be between 2600 BC and 1900 BC.
Necklaces, bracelets, and weights are among the features of the Indus Valley Civilization. The transaction involved the extensive exchange of goods. It cannot be said that in the Indus Valley Civilization, villages were dominated by cities. The relationship between the two was mainly based on economic transactions.
After 2100 BC, the western areas of the Indus Valley Civilization gradually became empty and the eastern areas flourished. During this period, cities in the Indus Valley civilization dwindled, and the number of villages increased. There are many reasons for this, the biggest of which is called the bad monsoon. It is estimated that conditions remained the same for centuries after 2150 BC, until now only remnants of it have been found.